Agri-MCQs #11: Crop Physiology

The option written in bold and underlined is a correct choice.


1. Turgor is important because it gives ______________ to the cell

A.  Energy,            B.  Shape,       C.  Plasticity,   D.  None


2. The upper limit of available water is ___________.

A.  Permanent wilting point,        B.  Capillary water,     C.  Hygroscopic water, D.  Field Capacity


3. The ability of water to enter into different reactions is called as ______

A.  Water activity,           B.  Water relations,     C.  Water potential,     D.  Water loss,


4. Developmental plasticity is a mechanism of ______________

A.  Drought escape,         B.  Drought tolerance, C.  Drought avoidance, D.  Drought susceptibility


5. If stomata are closed the water use efficiency___________

A.  Decreases, B.  Increases,        C.  remain Constant,   D.  None of above


6. The energy available in a system to perform work is _________

A) Potential energy, B. Free energy, C. Kinetic energy, D. Net energy,


7. In mature cells most of the water is present in__________

A) Cell wall, B. Cytoplasm, C. Vacuole, D. Cell membrane


8. The water potential of pure free water is _______________

A) Minimum, B. Maximum, C. Negative, D. None,


9. The energy developed in a solution due to the presence of solutes is_______

A)       Osmotic pressure, B. Osmotic potential, C. Water potential, D. Turgor pressure


10. ————is permanent climatic feature of a region.

A)                      Drought , B. Humidity, C. Radiation, D. Aridity     


11. A mature seed commonly of cereals and legumes used for consumption by humans or animals is

A. Seed                 B. Beans                      C. Gram                      D. Grain

12. A one seeded, dry, indehiscent fruit with the seed attached to fruit wall at one point only.

A. Siliqua              B. Cereals                    C. Legume                  D. Achene


13. The region between insertion of the cotyledons and the first true leaves

A. Epicotyle                     B. Hypocotyle             C. Plumule                  D. Radicle


14. The baby plant inside the seed is called

a. pollen                 b. ovule           c. embryo       d. endosperm


15. A minute opening in the seed which helps to absorb water and allow diffusion of gases is known as

A. Micropyle                    B. Hilum                     C. Carnucle     d. seed coat


16. Protective sheath surrounding plumule in monocots is called

A. Caryopsis                     B. Coleorrhiza             C. Coleoptiles             d. aleurone layer


17. Quinoa is an example of

A. Cereals             B. Pseudocereals        C. Legumes                 d. Fruits


18. In gymnosperms, the main storage organ is

A. Endosperm                   B. Perisperm      C. Megagametophyte   D. none of these


19. Which of the seed has maximum protein and oil content

a. Soybean            b. oil palm       c. maize           d. Lentil


20. Storage protein of cereals is known as

A. Albumins          B. Prolamins  C. Globulins D. Non of these


21. The opening and closing of stomata is called as ______________

a.       Circadian rhythms

b.      Stomatal regulation

c.       Stomatal inhibition

d.   None

22. Hydrophytes have ____________root hair.

a)      No

b)     Abundant

c)      Long

d)      Short

23. First line of defense against drought is______________

a)      Reduced leaf area

b)      Root extension

c)      Stomatal closure

d)      All of the above

24. The entry of water into the soil is called as __________

a)      Leaching

b)     Infiltration

c)      Percolation

d)      None

25. Small openings in the bark of woody plants for exchange of gas and water are called a ______________

a)      Stomata

b)      Hydathodes

c)      Pores

d)     Lenticels

26. In response to stress conditions the concentrations of ABA __________in the plants.

a)      Increases

b)      Decreases

c)      Remain Constant

d)      None of the above

27. The movement of water in tracheids is __________ than the vessels.

a)      Faster

b)     Slower

c)      Same

d)      None of the above

28. Lands where the growing season is less than _____________ days are categorized as Dry lands

a)      120

b)      110

c)      100

d)      90

29. In __________ zone, the annual rainfall is less than 300 mm.

a)      Arid

b)      Semi-arid

c)      Humid

d)      Sub-humid

30. The major type of water available to plants is _____________

a)      Gravitational water

b)      Hygroscopic water

c)      Capillary water

d)      None of the above

31. Desertification is a process of land____________

a)      Development

b)     Degradation

c)      Use

d)      None of the above

32. In CAM plants, there is _________ arrangement of CO2 fixation cycle.

a)      Temporal

b)      Spatial

c)      Hierarchical

d)      None of the above

33. WUE of rice is ___________ than wheat.

a)      Less

b)      More

c)      Same

d)      None of the above

34. Water always moves from high________ to low_________      

a)      Water potential

b)      Turgor pressure

c)      Osmotic pressure

d)      None of the above

35. Photorespiration takes place in _____________

a)      Chloroplast

b)      Peroxisomes

c)      Mitochondria

d)     All of the above

36. The process of loss of water from living plants is called as ______

a)      Evaporation

b)      Guttation

c)      Transpiraion

d)      None of the above

37. Transpiration ___________water deficit in the plants.

a)      Creates

b)      Ameliorates

c)      Prevents

d)      Reduces

38. Chloroplasts are _________ in the guard cells.

a)      Absent

b)     Present

c)      Efficient

d)      None of the above

39. Root hairs are __________

a)      Unicellular

b)      Multicellular

c)      Impermeable

d)      Long living

40. WUE is maximum in _______plants.

a)      C3

b)      C4

c)      CAM

d)      C3-C4 Intermediates

41. ABA _______ the closure of stomata.

a)      Stimulates

b)      Inhibits

c)      Regulates

d)      None of the above

42. Early maturity is a mechanism of drought

a)      Tolerance

b)     Escape

c)      Die-off

d)      None of the above

43. Osmotically active charged solutes are called as __________

a)      Osmoprotectants

b)      Osmotica

c)      Osmolytes

d)      Electrolytes

44. Due to asymmetric cell division in fertilized egg, the basal cell gives rise to

A. Suspensor                    B. Embryo       C. Endosperm             D. None of these


45. Mature embryo is embedded in endosperm tissue

A. Castor bean                  B. tomato                    C. carrot          D. all of these


46. 95% of the maize endosperm AGPase is

A. Plastidial          B. Cytosolic    C. Vacuolar     D. All of these


47. Seeds that contain galactomannans as main storage reserve are

A. Wheat/maize    B. Cotton/sunflower     C. Coffee/date palm    D. None of these


48. Which of the following seed has maximum oil contents and major storage organ is endosperm

A. Cotton  B. Brassica      C. Soybean      D. Castor bean


49. In plants, fatty acid synthesis occurs predominantly in plastids and requires

A. Carbon,            B. ATP            C. Reducing power     D. All of these


50. Phytin is present in seeds in a range of

A. 4-7%     B. 0.1-0.4%     C. 0.5-3%       D. 5-10%


51. 60-95% assimilates are

A. Carbon                        B. Nitrogen     C. Phosphorus            D. None of these


52. Scutellum plays an important role in establishing interaction b/w

A. Embryo & seed coat    B. Embryo & Aleurone layer  C. Embroy & endosperm


53. Controlled hydration process followed by redrying that allows all pregerminative metabolic processes but prevents radicle protrusion is called as

A. Seed priming B. On farm priming     C. seed coating                        D. seed soaking


54. The duration of phase II (metabolic activation) for seed germination is dependent on

A. Temperature       B. Water potential     C. Both A & B           D. None of these        


55. Seedling in which cotyledon or cotyledons emerge from above the soil surface following germination due to extension of hypocotyl

A. Epigeal germination B. Hypogeal germination     C. Both A &B  D. None of these


56. The storage in which seeds are placed into liquid nitrogen at a temp of -196°C is known as

A. Hermetic       B. Cryogenic              C. Conditioned           D. Containerized

57. Those seeds can be stored for longer period of time by reducing moisture upto 5% are called as

A. Recalcitrant      B. Orthodox  

58. Which are the active meristems found in young plant

a)      Root cap

b)      Root apex

c)      Apical meristem

d)      Lateral meristem.

59. Plant development that gives rise to new organs and basic plant form are:

a)      Vascular cambium

b)      Secondary growth.

c)      Primary growth

d)      Tertiary growth.

60. Which protein is attached to membrane surface by non-covalent bonds and dissociated from

membranes with high salt solutions:

a)      Peripheral proteins

b)      Wall proteins.

c)      Integered  proteins

d)      Lipo proteins.

61. The nucleus is surrounded by a double membrane called.

a)      Nuclear membrane

b)     Nuclear envelope

c)      Nuclear pores

d)      Nuclear pore complex

62. Mature living plants contain vacuole that occupy volume to that of the cell

a)   80 – 85%        (b)       80-90%           (c) 70-80%      (d) 75-85/%

63. Microtubules are macromolecular assemblies of which protein:

a)      Non-ionic protein

b)      Lipoprotein

c)      Membrane proteins

d)     Globular proteins

64. Microfilaments are

a) Hallow  (b) Solid         (C) Liquid      (d) All

65. Microtubules polarity arise from the polarity of

a)   a- tublin           (b) B-tublin     (c) R-tublin     (d) S & B- tublin

66. Which protein hydrolyzes ATP to ADP

a)Myosins                         b) Kinesins      c)  Motor proteins       d) All above

67. The transition from GAOS requires a set of cyclins

G Cycling             b) CDKS         c) Mitotic cyclins        d) Proteasome

68. Intercellular transport of solutes through plasmodesmata is

a) Apoplastic transport     (b) Simplastic transport       c) Polar transport

d) Non-polar transport

69. Glyoxysomes are present in

Root          b) Shoot          c) Oil storing seeds                d) Leaf


70. How many types of Cytoskeleton elements have been demonstrated in plant cell.

a)      5                b) 4                  c)        3                      (d) 2


71. Seeds usually germinate in

a)      Dark               b) light             c) Moderate                 d) All conditions


72. Site of Ribosome synthesis

            a) Mitochondria          b) Cytoplasme             c) Golgibodies            d) nucleus


73. Site of protein biosynthesis:

a)   Golgibodies     b) Ribosome   c) Nucleolus (d) mitochondria


74. Site of storage and replication of chromosome is

a)   Nucleus           b) Protoplast    c) Nucleoplast             d) Nuclear membrane

75. The complex process of protein synthesis starts with

a) Signal transduction       b) transcription   c) Translocation (d) Translation


76. Root absorbs water approximately

a)   100g    b) 250 g           c) 500 g           (d) 20 g


77. Cell walls allow plant cells to build up large internal hydrostatic pressures called:

Osmotic pressure (b) turgor pressure (c) Root pressure (d) hydrostatic pressure


78. Cytoplasm makes up to volume of cell

a).10-15%              b) 5-10%        c) 5-12%         d) 10-20%


79. For water at 25oC, the heat of vaporization is

a) 41 KJ mol-1       b) 41 KJ mol-1             c) 43 KJ mol-1                         d) 44 KJ mol-1


80. The force which resists evaporation of liquid molecules from surface

            a) Heat of vaporization b) Heat of evaporation c) Surface tension d) Evaporation


81. Cohesion, adhesion and surface tension give rise to

a)      Water evaporation      b) capillarity c) Water uptake           d) Evaporation


82. The smaller capillary tube, the rise of capillary water will be

a) High                  b) low              c) Medium                   d) None


83. Cohesion gives water a tensile strength

a) Low       b) Medium      c) High            d) no effect


 84. Tension in the liquid phase collapses it is called

a)      Somatic adjustment    b) Cavitation c)Movement of liquid             d) Water movement stop

85. Water Molecules in a solution are

a) Static     b) Non-static        c) Stable & nonstable               d) None

86. If water moves in the form of groups of molecules this movement is called

a) Bulk flow       b) Mass flow               c) both            (d) diffusion


87. Membrane of plant cells are

            a) Selectively permeable       b) Non selective          c) Charged      d) Semi-permeable


88. The direction & rate of water flow across a membrane is determined by

a) Concentration gradient      b) pressure gradient        c) both         d) Somatic pressure.


89. The only vitamin whole sole physiological role is to quench free radical reactions

A. Vitamin E,       B. Vit A,         C. Vit C,         D. Vit D


90. The most abundant carbohydrate during cold hardening is

A. Sucrose,            B. Glucose,     C. Stachyose, D. Fructose


91. Normal range for chilling temperature for most of the crops

A.1-5°C     , B. 4-15°C     , C.10-15°C     , D. 0-5°C


92. Integral membrane proteins span through the width of membrane and act as

A. Primary active transport, B. Carriers, C. Channels, D. Recognition site

93. The driving force for passive ion uptake is

A. ATP,     B. NADPH,    C. Gradient,   D. Channels

94. The amount of micronutrients in higher plants on plant dry weight is always

A. ³ 1000 μg g-1 , B. £ 1000 μg g-1,         C. ³100 μg g-1 ,           D. £100 μg g-1

95. Which of the following is NOT a required nutrient for higher plants?

A. Si,         B. Ni,              C. Cl,             D. Mo

96. Glycolysis takes place in 

A. Cytoplasm,      B. Chloroplast, C. Mitochondira, D. All


97. The force which resists evaporation of liquid molecules from surface

a)      Heat of vaporization b) Heat of evaporation c) Surface tension d) Evaporation


98. Major factor influencing the water potential in plants is

a)      Concentration b) Pressure      c) Gravity       d) All


99. Which denote the effects of solutes, pressure and gravity on the free energy of water

a)      Somatic potential b) water potential c) Osmotic potential d) adjustment

100. Turgor pressure exits only when pressure potential is

a)      0          b) <0               c) >0                d) <1


101. The process that is most affected by water deficit is

a)      Plant growth b) Evaporation            c) Stress          d) Drought


102. Plant tissues that store high concentration of sucrose have solute potential

a.)   Low   b) high             c) medium                   d) no interaction


103. Growth of plant cells requires turgor pressure to

a)      Stretch cell wall  

b)      Shrink cell wall    

c)      Rapture cell well  

d)      Development

104. The value of water potential for well watered plant leaves ranges from

a.       1 to 2MPa

b.      1 to 2MPa

c.       1 to –2MPa

d.      0.23 to -1.0MPa

105. Water potential inside the cells in

a)      Positive and large

b)      Positive & small

c)      Negative and large         

d)      Negative and small

106. A negative hydrostatic pressure in soil water effect soil water potential

a)      Low                 b) high                         c) moderate                 d) none


107. For wet soils water potentional is

a)      Close to zero b) far from zero           c)         > 1       d)         < 1


108. For dried soil water potential is

a)      Negative                     b) positive       c) zero                         d) near to zero


109. In a one meter tall plant, water transported through xylem is

a) 98%                   b) 98.5%          c) 99%             d) 99.5%

110. Maturation of tracheids and vessel elements cause

a) Growth             b) Cell division           c) strength the plant    d. Death


111. Vessel elements have maximum range of length is

a) 5 cm                  b) 15 cm          c) 20 cm          d) 10 cm


112. Water at the top of tree has tension

a) High      b) low              c) no effect      d) very less effect


113. At night water potential

a)   remain same b)         decrease          c) increase       d) equal to zero


114. Water move up through xylem by which pressure.

a)   Negative          b) Positive       c)         Both               d) Diffusion


115. The resistance associated with diffusion through stomatal pore is

a)   Stomatal resistance b) Leaf stomatal resistance

c)    Stomatal resistance    d) Surface tension


116. Thickness of boundary layer in determined primarily by

a) Canopy              b)Wind speed             c)   Evaporation rate               d) Plant type


117. When soil water is less abundant then stomata

a)      Open     b. Open less c) remained close        d) all


118. Stomatal resistance is regulated by

a) Opening of stomata      b) Closing of stomata c) Opening and closing of stomata     d) ALL


119. Guard cells, subsidiary cells, and pores are collectively called

a) Stomatal apparatus       b) stomatal complex    c)Stomatal subsidiary           d) ALL


120. In soil and xylem, water moves by bulk flow in response to a

a) Osmatic pressure                      b) Turgor pressure

            c) Cohesion-tension forces     d) Pressure gradient


121. From soil to leaf water potential have

a) Increase                                     b) Decrease

c)   Remain same                           d) No effect

122. Downward movement of root is due to

a) Gravity                          b) Gravitropic response          

b)   Both a & b                  d) None

123. Root hairs first appear in

a) Enlogation zone                        b) Meristematic zone 

c)   Root cap                     d) Maturation zone

124. K+, N03, NH4+ and PO4 can be absorbed by roots

a) Easily                            b) Slow                       

c)   With difficulty            d) Can not be absorbed


125. Within the cell, the hyphae can form oval structure called

a) Arbuscules                   b) Vesicles      

c)   Spores                         d) Hartig

126. Movement of molecules against gradient of chemical potential is called

a) Active transport                        b) Passive transport 

            c) Diffusion                                   d) Osmosis

127. Movement of molecules along gradient of chemical potential is called

a) Active transport                      b) Passive transport    

            c) Diffusion                                   d) Osmosis


128. Symport is across membrane movement in both directions

a)      Yes                  b) Mostly                     c) No  


129. Membrane proteins that carry out primary active transport are called.

a)   Pumps            b) Motor          c) Ions             d) All


130. Which provide the information about the amount of light energy taken up or absorbed by a molecule or substance

a) Absorption spectrum b) Visible spectrum     c) Infrared microwave

Radio wave


131. Absorption of blue light excites the

a) Chlorophyll     b) Mitochondria          c) Leaf structure          d) Photon


132. Excited chlorophyll emits

a) Electron b) Ion              c) Cation         d) Photon


133. In photosystem I reduction of ___________ occurs by

a) NAD+                b) ATP                       c) ADP                        d)NADP+


134. In photo system II photolysis of ______ occurs

a) NAD+    b) Water         c) ATP             d) O2


135. The site of photosynthesis is

a) Mitochondria    b) Pigmate       c) Golgi complex        d) Chloroplast


136. Site of light reaction of photosynthesis is

a) Chloroplast                  b) Chlorophyll             c) Pigment       d) ALL


137. Reduction of carbon during photosynthesis occurs in

a) Thylakoid membrane    b) Stroma       c) Grana           d) Chlorophyll


138. Stacks of thylakoid combine to form

a) Middle lamella  b) Nucleus       c) Granum     d) Stroma


139. Those membrane in which stacking is absent are known as

a) Middle lamella b) Endoplasmic reticulum       c) Ribosome                d) All


140. Chloroplasts contain

a) DNA                 b) RNA                       c) Ribosome                d) All


141. Certain proteins necessary for photosynthesis are located at

a) Nuclear membrane                   b) Thylakoid membrane

c) Chloroplast                               d) Ribosome


142. Some herbicide effect electron flow that is

a) Activate                        b) Block                      c) No affect                d) a & b


143. Carotenoids play an important role in

a) Photo protection                       b) Photo inhibition      c) Photosynthesis       d) ETC


144. If excited chlorophyll exists for a prolonged period then it forms

a) Poisonous compound    b) Capture cell wall     c) Singlet oxygen     d) H2O2


145. The activity of RUBISCO is regulated by

a) Light                 b) Dark           c) 2                  d) CO2


146. Stomata of CAM plants open at

a) Day                   b) Night          c) A & B                     d) None


147. Stomata of CAM plant close at

a) Night     b) Day                         c) always remain open            d) a& b


148. CAM mechanism enables plants to improve

a) WUE    b) WHC          c) Photosynthesis        d) Growth


149. CAM plants losses water for every gram of CO2 gained

a) 10-50 g  b) 50-100 gm              c) 100-150 g                d) 70-150g


150. C4 plants losses water for every gram of CO2

a) 50-100 g            b) 100-150 g   c) 150-250 g    d) 250-300 g


Use Landscape for Mobile from here 


160. The Dark reaction of photosynthesis was worked out by:

a)      Hatch and Slack

b)     Melvin Clavin

c)      Arnold

d)      Emerson


161. Photosynthetic pigments absorb

a)      UV radiation

b)      IR radiation

c)      Visible radiation

d)      Gama radiation

162. In cyclic photophorylation the high energy electrons are driven out from

a)      Chlorophyll a 683

b)     P 700

c)      Chlorophyll a 673

d)      P 870

163. Plant require Fe and Mg for

a)      Synthesis of chlorophyll

b)      Opening and closing of stomata

c)      Translocation of carbohydrates

d)      None of these

164. Plant absorb the element nitrogen in the form

a.       nitrogen gas

b.      nitrites

c.       nitrates

d.      nitric acid

165. Bacteroid means

a)      dead bacteria

b)      living bacteria

c)      bacteria like substance

d)     living bacteria but cannot divide

166. Which of the following bacterium brings about denitrification?

a)      Pseudomonas

b)      Rhizobium

c)      Azotobacter

d)      Nitrobacter

167. Which of the following is essential for Nitrogen Fixation by leguminous plants?

a)      Chlorophyll

b)     Leghaemoglobin

c)      Anthocyanin

d)      Phycocyanin

168. First experiments related to the method of hydroponics were done by

a)      Knop

b)     Sachs

c)      Arnon

d)     Hill


169. The most widely accepted theory accepted to explain the translocation of carbohydrates in higher plants

a)      Root pressure theory

b)      Osmotic theory

c)      Imbibition theory

d)      Mass flow theory

170. Which element is required for Nodulation in Legumes?

a)      Mn

b)      Fe

c)      Mo

d)      B

171. One among the following elements is very important for photolysis of water

a)      Mg

b)      Mn

c)      Fe

d)      Zn

172.  Hypothesis that all photosynthesis organisms require a source of hydrogen was first proposed by

a)      Van Niel

b)      Hatch and Slack

c)      Hill

d)      Ruber and Kamen

173. In the photosynthesis process, PS II absorbs energy at or just below

a)      700 nm

b)      870 nm

c)      680 nm

d)      780 nm

174. The amount of ATP required for the synthesis of one glucose molecule in C4 pathway is

a)      18 ATP

b)     30 ATP

c)      12 ATP

d)      24 ATP

175. In bacterial photosynthesis comes from

a)      H2S

b)      H2O

c)      H2SO4

d)      NH3

176. Isotopes popularly known to have been used in study of photosynthesis:

a)      C16 and N15

b)     C14 and O16

c)      P32 and C12

d)      C11 and P32

177. Dark reaction is traced by

a)      O19

b)      P32

c)      X-rays

d)     14CO2

178. Photosynthesis is maximum in

1.      Blue light

2.      Red light

3.      Blue and green light

4.      Blue and red light

      179. During seed germination, seed coat ruptures due to

a)      Differentiation of cotyledons

b)      Massive glycolysis in endosperm and cotyledons

c)      Sudden increase in cell division

d)      Massive imbibitions of water

    180. Seed develops from

d) Embryo sac

    181. An albuminous seed showing hypogeal germination is

d) Maize

    182. Proteinaceous part of maize endosperm is

a)      Apophysis

b)      scutellum

c)      Aleurone layer

d)      Peripheral layer

183. Seed dormancy allows the plants to

a)      Overcome unfavourable climate conditions

b)      Develop healthy seeds

c)      Reduce viability

d)      Prevent deterioration of seeds

184. Among the following which compound can induce seed dormancy?

a)      ABA

b)      Potassium nitrate

c)      Gibberelllin

d)      Ethylene

185. Protective covering over radical during seed germination is

a)      Suspensor

b)      Coleorhiza

c)      Epithelium

d)      Coleoptile

186. The water potential of pure water at atmospheric pressure is

a)      -2.3 bar

b)      +2.3 bar

c)      Zero bar

d)      One bar

187. Plasmolysis occurs due to

a)      Absorption

b)      Osmosis

c)      Endosmosis

d)     Exosmosis

188. Hydroponics is

a)      Growing of aquatic plants

b)      Growing off floating aquatic plants

c)      Soilless cultivation of plants

d)     Growing of plants inside water

189. Cooling of plants is caused by

a)      Guttaion

b)      Photorespiration

c)      Transpiration

d)      Assimilation

190. The hormone which signals the closure of stomata is

a)                  Auxins

b)                  Cytokinine

c)                  Gibberelline

d)                 Abscisic acid

191. Water absorption takes place through

a)      Lateral roots

b)      Root cap

c)      Root hairs

d)      Tap root

192. Molybdenum is involved in plant metabolism in

a)      Translocation of solutes

b)      Tryptophan synthesis

c)      ABA synthesis

d)     Nitrate reduction

193. Which one of the following is used for measuring the rate of transpiration?

a)      Porometer

b)      Osmometer

c)      Moll’s experiment

d)     Potometer

194. Transpiration is least in

a)      High atmospheric humidity

b)      good soil moisture

c)      high wind velocity

d)      dry environment

195. Stomata open at night and close during day time in

a)      Xerophytes

b)      Mesophytes

c)      Succulents

d)      Hydrophytes

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